Tag Archives: John’s Gopel

2 April: Jesus Wept.

Chichester Cathedral is famed for its modern art – especially the prominent commissions of the artists Graham Sutherland, John Piper and Marc Chagall by Walter Hussey during his time as Dean (1955-1977). It is also home to some fine works of art from earlier periods, and there have been a number of important acquisitions since Hussey’s time as Dean.

 

During 2016, as part of my work as Bishop Otter Scholar for Theology and the Arts in the Diocese of Chichester, I was researching the art in the Cathedral, and leading a series of discussion groups through which I gathered some contemporary responses to the works.

 

 

Among the oldest treasures in the Cathedral are two reliefs, thought to date from the twelfth century, depicting scenes from the Lazarus narrative in John’s Gospel: Martha and Mary going to meet Jesus (John 11:30-32) and the raising of Lazarus (John 11:33-44).

 

These are rare examples of Romanesque sculpture in Britain, and a remarkable survival. Resonating wonderfully with their subject-matter, the reliefs were hidden for centuries, and rediscovered, behind the choir stalls, in 1829. Other fragments of carvings were discovered along with the reliefs, and it is thought that they formed part of a larger scheme in a chancel screen. When rediscovered, the reliefs were moved to their present location in the south aisle, which saved them from another risk – the collapse of the Cathedral spire (into the quire, where the reliefs were found) in 1861.

 

One of the most striking features of the carvings is the emotional intensity in the faces of the figures, and this was the first thing that was commented on during the discussion session about the reliefs; as one participant put it simply: ‘they look so sad’. Jesus’ face in the raising of Lazarus is particularly powerful – a very striking rendering of the shortest verse in the Bible, John 11:35, usually rendered ‘Jesus wept’.

 

There is a wonderful drawing of the face of Jesus by John Piper in the collection at Pallant House Gallery in Chichester, where Dean Hussey bequeathed his personal art collection (further links between the Cathedral and the gallery will be mentioned in future posts). Piper is one of many artists inspired by the reliefs; another was Eric Gill, who grew up in Chichester, and enthused about the reliefs: he borrowed the composition of the sisters meeting Jesus for Jesus meeting the daughters of Jerusalem in his Stations of the Cross at Westminster Cathedral.

 

Part of the appeal of the reliefs lies, as one participant highlighted, in the very human presentation of Jesus here. According to the contemporary custom, we are left in no doubt that Jesus is the most important figure in the reliefs by his exaggerated height. But at the same time, this is a figure who has friendships and emotions, and whose grief-stricken face inspires empathy from viewers many centuries after it was carved.

 

Indeed, for me, the fact that the reliefs were carved many centuries ago heightens their impact – partly because their very survival is so remarkable, but more so because their emotional immediacy speaks across the centuries. And because most of the ‘facts’ about these carvings are lost in the mists of time, the viewer is liberated from becoming bogged down in analysing details such as the artists’ intentions and instead is given, as one participant put it ‘a blank page’, inviting ‘an immediate, emotional reaction… [rather] than something which is more intellectual.’

 

On the other hand, Linda Brown highlighted that we can also view the reliefs as giving us an insight into twelfth century perceptions of the Lazarus narrative, and, in the architectural features in the sisters meeting Jesus, impressions of the Holy Land in this period. This thought prompted a discussion about travel and pilgrimage in this period, and in turn made me wonder if we might view these works like the mediaeval church labyrinths which allowed the faithful to make a surrogate pilgrimage. Perhaps the twelfth-century viewer of the reliefs (or indeed the twenty-first century one) could (and can) imagine him/herself standing at the gateway and the graveside in Bethany, with Jesus, Martha and Mary, and sharing in their anguish.

 

Thank you to Linda Brown, Margaret Baugier, Fran Box, Tessa Cox, Rebekah Hanson, Jennifer Sandys and the participants who asked to remain anonymous for their contributions on this topic.

 

Further reading

 

Trevor Brighton, ‘Art in the Cathedral from the Foundation to the Civil War’ in Chichester Cathedral: A Historical Survey, ed. Mary Hobbes (Chichester: Philimoe & Co. Ltd, 1994), 69-84: 72-73.

 

Chichester Cathedral, ‘Delve Deeper: The Chichester Reliefs’, Chichester Cathedral website, 2016. Accessed 27/12/2016.

 

Alan Saunders, The Chichester Reliefs (Chichester: West Sussex Institute of Higher Education, 1989).

 

 

A version of this post was published by Transpositions on 3 October 2016. 

 

NAIB.

 

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Home-making

27th September     26th Sunday of Year B

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The Mass readings today speak of marriage, divorce – and children. I don’t think Adam and Eve had priest or rabbi to bless their union; it is Father Adam who speaks for them both when he says Eve is flesh of his flesh, bone of his bone.

‘Make your home in me, as I make mine in you,’ Jesus says in John 15, the keynote reading for our wedding. Icons and crucifixes may remind us of that promise to make our home in the Lord, but when these become part of the furniture, they could easily be taken for granted. My wife Janet takes little for granted. She has a constant programme of renewal: the bathroom having been sorted last year, our bedroom was made over this. More than mere maintenance, this programme lets her creativity blossom. Some things get moved, and not every member of the family knows where to find them. New shelves are made; the back gate is painted; the garden is given new plants… It can be unsettling or exciting.

Making a home is to join in the work of the Trinity, to create a place for love to flourish. The effects of the love between the persons of the Trinity are unpredictable, at least to mortal minds. We are there in the midst of it all, called by the Lord of the Dance. MMB

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The Dormition

Photo0536 (640x294)

This carving of the Dormition of Mary was in the Church of St Maurice in Talloires, Savoy, where we were on holiday last week. Despite the poor reproduction – an old-fashioned phone camera in a dark corner – the sense of Mary as one of a community with the disciples, as part of a family, is clear. John took her into his home, indeed.

And yet, that white sheet separates her body from the living disciples around her. She is no longer among them but with her risen Son.

I read* that the English word cemetery comes from the Greek Koimisis, meaning falling asleep in death. May we all awake to new life tomorrow morning in this world, and in the world to come, when we are called. Perhaps the Feast of the Dormition or Assumption is the day we should visit our loved ones’ graves, rather than a cold day in November, when the trees are bare and life seems to be on hold. In August we can see life coming to fruition in field, orchard and hedgerow. Unless a grain of wheat shall fall …

MMB

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