Tag Archives: soil

20 May: Gilbert White XII, on worms.

Science was not always seen as attacking Christian belief, and should not be presented as doing so. Rather it challenges the believer to accept, or not, the evidence of their own observations, and the often detailed observations of honest men and women looking at Creation, trying to understand it and their place within it. As one scientist put it, you can believe that God indeed created all things inside a week, but you have to accept that he created a world that looks, sounds and tastes as though he has been creating on a larger scale and over a longer period of time than we can even begin to imagine.

Gilbert White, the curate of Selborne in Hampshire, was one such honest observer. He had his battles to convince gardeners and farmers that ‘worms seem to be the great promoters of vegetation’. That is now received wisdom. As for ‘small shell-less snails, called slugs’ … well, at least the hedgehogs enjoy them. White’s Natural History is based on letters to scientist friends.

These worms are rather dirty with grains of sand and soil adhering to their skin. We thought it would be unfair to wash them down. After the photo op they were soon back in their native soil.

Selborne, May 20, 1777.

Dear Sir,

Lands that are subject to frequent inundations are always poor; and probably the reason may be because the worms are drowned. The most insignificant insects and reptiles are of much more consequence, and have much more influence in the Economy of nature, than the incurious are aware of; and are mighty in their effect, from their minuteness, which renders them less an object of attention; and from their numbers and fecundity.

Earth-worms, though in appearance a small and despicable link in the chain of nature, yet, if lost, would make a lamentable chasm. For, to say nothing of half the birds, and some quadrupeds, which are almost entirely supported by them, worms seem to be the great promoters of vegetation, which would proceed but lamely without them, by boring, perforating, and loosening the soil, and rendering it pervious to rains and the fibres of plants, by drawing straws and stalks of leaves and twigs into it; and, most of all, by throwing up such infinite numbers of lumps of earth called worm-casts, which, being their excrement, is a fine manure for grain and grass.

Worms probably provide new soil for hills and slopes where the rain washes the earth away; and they affect slopes, probably to avoid being flooded. Gardeners and farmers express their detestation of worms; the former because they render their walks unsightly, and make them much work: and the latter because, as they think, worms eat their green corn. But these men would find that the earth without worms would soon become cold, hard-bound, and void of fermentation; and consequently sterile: and besides, in favour of worms, it should be hinted that green corn, plants, and flowers, are not so much injured by them as by many species of coleoptera (scarabs), and tipulae (long-legs), in their larva, or grub-state; and by unnoticed myriads of small shell-less snails, called slugs, which silently and imperceptibly make amazing havoc in the field and garden.

From “The Natural History of Selborne” by Gilbert White.

Let’s pray that we may never be counted among the incurious, but may appreciate that every link in the chain of nature has its part to play.

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31 July, Fair Trade and Climate Change III

COFFEE - a young coffee plant in Maray - Peru - banner

We cross the Atlantic to Nicaragua to meet our third Fairtrade Farmer.

Teresa Riviera Palaciosa

Teresa Riviera Palaciosa, a coffee farmer in Nicaragua calls on communities around the world to join the fight to tackle the climate crisis.

COFFEE farmer Teresa Riviera Palaciosa

“I invite all the producers of the world to organise themselves into co-operatives and to look after the environment; to stop burning the forests, clearing the land and polluting the water and to stop using banned chemical products which are harmful to coffee consumers, animals, and the environment. Chemicals also kill the organisms in the soil and lead to erosion.

“We are responsible for the erosion of our soil – sometimes by thinking that we are improving and will produce more, over time we can end up not producing anything at all.

“So if all the small producers organise themselves in co-operatives, we will really benefit and we will really value the world that God has gifted us.”

These farmers – who have done the least to cause the climate crisis – must not be left alone in facing the consequences.

And you can help – share this message from Ebrottié, Zeddy and Teresa on Facebook, Twitter or by email to spread the word that the changing climate really is an emergency for small farmers all around the world.

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Memento homo quia pulvis es

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Or look at the flowers of the field: in this case, the forget-me-not. On the left, the wild flower; on the right, the 14th Century Bishop’s Eye in Lincoln Cathedral. Dust of the earth, breathing out oxygen that human dust might receive it as the breath of God; solidified dust, blown and hammered into sheets of coloured glass, colouring the air red, gold and blue, rainbowing the motes that rise and descend like Jacob’s Angels. We stand on holy ground in the Cathedral and in the fields.

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